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Vegetable Oil Theme: Oil Refining

I. Meaning
Oils and fats refining, also known as "oil refining". Removing solid impurities, free fatty acids, phospholipids, colloids, waxes, pigments, odors and other processes in vegetable oils.
Classification
Oils that are filtered, degummed and deacidified are called semi-refining oils. The oil which is then decolorized, deodorized, wintered and dewaxed is called refined oil.
3. Oil refining process
Edible vegetable oil
The refining process of edible vegetable oil can be divided into general edible oil refining, advanced edible oil refining and special oil refining. The refining process varies according to the use and quality requirements of oil products. The refining process of several main grades of edible vegetable oil is as follows.
(1) Refining process of general edible oils and fats
1. The process flow of national standard secondary oil (raw oil requires light color, acid value less than 4, without pollutants) (I)
-desolution__
Crude Oil Filtration Hydration Degumming Vacuum Drying Secondary Edible Oil
2. Processing flow of national standard secondary oil (raw oil is crude oil with poor quality and contains pollutants) (II)
-desolution__
Crude Oil Filtration Alkali Refining Desulfurization Washing Vacuum Drying Secondary Edible Oil
3. National Standard First-Class Oil Process
-desolution__
Crude Oil Filtration Alkali Refining Desulfurization Washing Vacuum Drying Secondary Edible Oil
(2) Refining process of high-grade edible oils and fats
1. Processing of Refined Edible Oil (Containing Advanced Cooking Oil and Salad Oil)
_Dewaxing_Dewaxing_
Crude oil filtration degumming deacidification vacuum drying decolorization deodorization filtration refined edible oil
2. Process flow of refined cold meal oil (salad oil)
Crude oil filtration degumming deacidification vacuum drying decolorization deodorization degreasing refined cold meal oil
(3) Refining process of edible oils and fats
_transesterification__
Crude oil filtration degumming deacidification dehydration decolorization hydrogenation post decolorization fractionation deodorization

A kind of
Food-specific oils and fats
(1) Soybean oil, peanut oil and sesame oil
Soybean oil, peanut oil and sesame oil are the main oils in China. If the quality of raw materials is good and the extraction process is reasonable, the quality of crude oil is good. The content of free fatty acid is generally less than 2%, which is easy to refine.
1. Refining process of crude edible oil (intermittent)
Soft water
_desolution_
Filtration of Crude Oil Preheating Hydration Static Settlement Separation Water-bearing Degumming Oil Drying Crude Edible Oil
Recovered Oil_-Oil Foot Treatment_-Oil-rich Oil Foot
A kind of
Lean oil foot
2. Refining process of refined edible oil (continuous deacidification, intermittent decolorization and deodorization)
Alkali phosphate solution
Filtration of Crude Oil Preheating Mixing Oil-base Ratio Mixing Reaction Soap Removal Soap Foot
A kind of
Filtration_-distillation deodorization_-filtration_-adsorption decolorization_-dehydration_-washing_-soft water
___
Waste clay adsorbent wastewater from refined cooking oil steam
(2) Cottonseed Oil
Cottonseed oil is also the main edible oil. However, wool cotton oil contains gossypol (about 1%), gum and wax (the content depends on the shell content of oil cotton embryo), which is not suitable for direct consumption, and its refining process is more complex.
1. Crude Cotton and Clean Oil Refining Process (Continuous)
Alkali soft water
_
Filtration of Crude Oil Preheating Oil-base Ratio Mixing Reaction Desoaping Washing Dehydration Drying Cotton Clean Oil
Soap-foot Wastewater
2. Refining process of refined edible oil
Soap base alkali solution of phosphoric acid alkali solution
__
Filtration of Crude Oil Preheating Mixing Oil-base Ratio Mixing Reaction Soap Removal Mixing

A kind of


Filtration_-distillation deodorization_-filtration_-adsorption decolorization_-dehydration_-washing_-desoaping


_____


Waste clay adsorbent waste water soft soap foot of refined edible oil steam


The process flow after deodorization process is as follows:


_Soft grease


Deodorized Cotton Oil Cooling Crystallization Nurturing Crystallization Filtration


_Cold Food Oil


(3) Rapeseed oil


Rapeseed oil is a semi-dry oil containing erucic acid. Except low erucic acid rapeseed oil, the other rapeseed oils contain more erucic acid, which accounts for 26.3%-57% of the fatty acid composition. High erucic acid rapeseed oil is less nutritious than low erucic acid rapeseed oil, but it is especially suitable for making industrial oils such as ship lubricants and tyres. In the process of oil production, mustard glycosides are hydrolyzed by mustard enzymes to form sulfur compounds and other toxic components, which affect the quality of crude oil. Generally speaking, the removal rate of sulfide is very low in the crude refining process, so Edible Rapeseed oil should be refined.
1. Refining process of crude rapeseed oil
The refining process and operating conditions of rapeseed oil are referred to soybean oil refining.
2. Refining process of refined rapeseed salad oil (intermittent)
Oil-rich Soap Foot in Alkali Solution Salting out Oil-poor Soap Foot
Filtration of Rapeseed Oil Preheating Neutralization Static Settlement Separation Washing Soft Water
A kind of
Filtration_-distillation deodorization_-filtration_-adsorption decolorization_-dehydration
___
Waste clay adsorbent wastewater from refined rapeseed oil steam
2. Refining process of refined rapeseed salad oil (all continuous)
Alkali phosphate solution
_
Filtration of Crude Oil Preheating Mixing Oil-base Ratio Mixing Reaction Soap Removal Soap Foot
A kind of
Filtration_-distillation deodorization_-filtration_-adsorption decolorization_-drying_-dehydration_-washing_-soft water
___
Waste clay adsorbent wastewater from rapeseed salad oil and steam
(4) Rice bran oil
Rice bran oil belongs to weak semi-dry oil. Because of the high content of lipase in rice bran, the acid value of crude oil is high and the quality is poor, which brings difficulties to oil refining. The refining process of refined rice bran oil is as follows.
Oil-rich Soap Foot Soft Water of Oil-rich Soap Foot
___
Filtration of chaff oil pretreatment primary neutralization separation secondary neutralization separation washing
A kind of
Refined bran oil_-filtration_-cooling crystallization_-distillation deodorization_-filtration_-adsorption decolorization_-dehydration
___
Waste clay adsorbent wastewater from wax paste steam
(5) Refining process of palm oil

Palm oil is derived from palm pulp. The fatty acid composition of palm oil is 40%~50% of saturated acid, 80% of which is palmitic acid. Oleic acid is the main unsaturated acid, followed by linoleic acid. It is rich in vitamin A and vitamin E, and has a deep brown color. Because palm fruits are decomposed by lipase before harvesting and oil-making, together with the influence of processing methods and storage and transportation conditions, the content of free fatty acids in crude palm oil is higher, generally about 10% and higher than 30%. The main uses of palm oil are soap making and special oils for food.
1. Refining process of refined palm oil
Oil-rich Soap Foot in Alkali Solution Salting out Oil-poor Soap Foot
Filtration of Crude Palm Oil Preheating Neutralization Static Settlement Separation Washing Soft Water
A kind of
Filtration_-distillation deodorization_-filtration_-adsorption decolorization_-dehydration
___
Waste clay adsorbent wastewater from refined brown oil steam
2. Refining Process of Separating Palm Oil
(1) Process flow (I)
Soft water and oil foot
_
Filtration Crude Oil Hydration Separation Cooling Crystallization Separation
A kind of
Filtration_Distillation Deodorization_Filtration_Adsorption Decolorization_Separation_Washing_Separation_Neutralization_Liquid Oil_
↓ ↓ ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ │
Waste clay adsorbent for liquid brown oil vapor waste water
Filtration_-distillation deodorization_-filtration_-adsorption decolorization_-separation_-washing_-separation_-neutralization_-lipid fixation_-_
_______
Waste clay adsorbent waste water soft soap base alkali solution
(2) Process flow (II)
WATER VAPOR FROM WASTE CLAY OF ACTIVE PHOSPHORIC ACTIVE CLAY
__liquid brown oil
Crude palm oil degumming adsorption decolorization filtration deacidification / deodorization filtration cooling crystallization filtration
_Palm Fixation
(6) Palm Kernel Oil and Coconut Oil
Palm kernel oil and coconut oil are non-drying oils. Lauric acid (45% - 5l%) is the main component of fatty acid, followed by myristic acid (13% - 25%) with a low gum content, which is especially suitable for physical refining deacidification. Soap grade and edible grade of palm kernel oil and coconut oil. The refining process of refined edible oil is as follows.
Phosphoric acid-clay
_
Crude Oil Dry Degumming Filtration Deacidification / Deodorization Enhanced Ze Filtration Refined Product Oil
_
Waste clay water vapor
(7) Sunflower Seed Oil
Sunflower seed oil is one of the major oil sources in northern China. It is rich in linoleic acid (54%-70% of the total fatty acid content) and oleic acid (39%) and has high nutritional value, but crude oil contains trace wax (about 0.10%) and oxygen acid, which affects the quality and storage stability. Sunflower seed oil on sale can be classified into two grades: crude and refined edible oil.
1. Refining process of crude sunflower seed oil
Alkali soft water
_Al(SO4)
Filtration of sunflower oil cooling alkalization separation washing dehydration drying crude refinement of sunflower seed oil
_
Soap wax wastewater
2. The refining process of sunflower oil:
Alkali phosphate solution
_
Filtration of Crude Oil Preheating Mixing Oil-base Ratio Mixing Reaction Soap Removal Soap Foot
A kind of
Wax paste_-filtration_-cooling crystallization_-distillation deodorization_-filtration_-adsorption decolorization_-drying_-dehydration_-washing_-soft water
___
Waste clay adsorbent wastewater from sunflower salad oil vapor